Cleveland [Official Journal] (Cleaveland until 1831) is a city in the northeast of the state of Ohio. It is located at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River in the Ereiee and covers an area of 213.47 km². In the 2010 census, it had a population of 396,815, making it the second largest city in Ohio after the capital, Columbus. Cleveland is the County Seat of Cuyahoga County and the geographic, economic and cultural center of the Cleveland-Elyria mentor Metropolitan Statistical Area, the largest conurbation in this state with around two million inhabitants.
|nickname: Forest City|
Terminal Tower in Cleveland
|Situation in Ohio|
|coordinates:||41° 29′ N, 81° 40′ W|
|Time zone:||Eastern (UTC-5/-4)|
- metropolitan area:
|385,809 (status: 2016)|
2.077.240 (status: 2010)
|population density:||1,920.1 inhabitants per km2|
|area:||213.47 km2 (approx. 82 mi2)|
of which 200.93 km2 (approx. 78 mi2) country
|area code:||+1 216|
|Mayor:||Frank G. Jackson (D)|
Clevelands situation in Cuyahoga County
Due to its convenient location, the city quickly grew into a major transport hub and industrial site in the 19th century. In 1930, it was the fifth largest city in the United States with 900,000 inhabitants. As a result of economic structural change, the second half of the twentieth century began a continuous decline and loss of meaning, exacerbated by ethnic conflict and a poor education system. This is matched by efforts to locate service companies, improve education and place cultural emphasis.
Cleveland is the seat of many major national companies, one of the Great Five Symphony Orchestras, the United Church of Christ (UCC), a Catholic bishop, several professional league sports teams, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. There are three universities, including the private research university Case Western Reserve University with its university clinics. The port is the third largest in the Great Lakes region and connected to the Atlantic via the St. Lorenz stream.
Politically, Cleveland is regarded as the stronghold of the Democrats. In the past, there have also been strong progressive currents and trade unions.
location and extension
Cleveland is located in the north-east of Ohio, on the southern shore of the Lake of Rijeka, 150 km from the Toledo airline to the west and 280 km from Buffalo at the eastern end of the lake, and about 145 km southeast of Detroit and almost 100 km west of the border from Ohio to Pennsylvania. The city area is 213.47 km² (of which 200.93 km² is the land area) and stretches over 22.5 km along the shore of the lake with a break through the municipality of Bratenahl and up to 14.5 km infrequently deep inland. The city is located on both sides of the mouth of the Cuyahoga lake, with about two thirds of the city area and the city center east of it. The related district, Cuyahoga County, surrounds the city evenly from all three sides and forms the Cleveland-Elyria mentor Metropolitan Statistical Area, colloquially Greater Cleveland along with four of the five adjacent counties.
From an economic point of view, Cleveland lies in the middle of the Rust Belt and former Manufacturing Belt, the densely populated first industrial area in the United States, whose former centers today are often characterized by the decline of heavy industry.
The area around Cleveland is the intersection of three major landscapes. The town itself is located on the southern edge of the Great Lakes plain. The central lowlands, the fertile prairie landscape of the Midwest, open towards the southwest. In the south-east, the Allegheny plateau is connected to a moraine landscape formed by ice-age glaciers, which extends to the mountain range of the Appalachian Mountains.
In the area of the estuary, the shore line of the Ereiee describes a sharp bend from west-east direction to northeast direction. The embankment rises in a terraced south-east direction and falls steeply towards the lake. The town center is 750 meters inland and is already 25 meters above the lake level. The embankment has been crossed by some rivers that have created deep gorges. By far the largest is the valley of the Cuyahoga, the so-called flats, with a width of about 800 meters. This valley has long hindered urban development towards the southwest and is now covered by a few high bridges.
The city is divided into 36 neighborhoods, the so-called Neighborhoods, Statistical Planning Areas (SPAs). These include several Census Tracts of the US census and have between 1,200 and 35,000 inhabitants. Their names and borders are often identical to former self-employed administrative units, which were incorporated in approximately between 1850 and 1925. The Neighborhoods are no longer of any administrative importance, except for the police patrol. Their former cultural autonomy has also been largely lost as a result of decades of migration. However, there is still a certain social identity. Among other things, they serve as a name for the residential neighborhoods, and various programs for urban regeneration are based on these limits and names.
In addition, the Cuyahoga divides the city in a wide range of parts to the east and to the west, which are called the East Side and the West Side (East Side and West Side). The southwest part of the East Side, located between Broadway Avenue and Cuyahoga, is also referred to as South Side (south side).
Closed construction has spread over the course of two centuries to the outside and now stretches over a radius of about 25 km around the city center. At the beginning of the construction, the city area grew by means of corresponding municipalities. Because these, unlike settlement activities, ended in 1925, the continuous construction stretches far beyond the city's borders, covering almost the entire Cuyahoga County.
The industrial facilities, which were once important, mainly extend along the lakeside in the area of the city center and along the Cuyahoga, extend for about 15 kilometers to the interior of the country. Other locations are located in the eastern suburb and along the starring railway lines. As a result of the decline of heavy industry, these areas are largely fallow. The city is trying to make them accessible for cultural purposes in the area of the city center.
The construction is most dense in the area of the city center and in the flats, with the eastern high bank having a significant overweight. On East 55th Street, the closed construction to the east collapses suddenly and passes into a narrow strip of approximately 50 blocks with strikingly thin construction. The center of the city is the square main square called Public Square on the eastern bank of the river.
The suburbs in the surrounding area are mainly residential communities. They are between 0.2 and 64 km2 and have between 10 and several 10,000 inhabitants. The largest are Parma in the southwest with a population of about 85,700 (Census 2000), followed by Lakewood in the west (56,700 inhabitants), Euclid in the northeast (52,700 inhabitants) and Cleveland Heights in the east (50,000 inhabitants). In addition to the valley of the Cuyahoga, significant industrial areas are located in Euclid in the north-east, Brook Park and Parma in the south-west and Solon in the south-east. Shopping centers and commercial areas have also been developed in some suburbs further away.
At the border of the city, the building passes into the suburbs. As the distance from the city center increases, both the population and the building material tend to become younger. The population density is also declining significantly externally, while the visible material wealth and share of self-occupied housing is increasing.
Cleveland's suburbs were built in five stages. Its location on the main roads and the distance from Cleveland’s city center reflect the prevailing mode of transport in the respective period and the corresponding speed.
Due to its location, close to the boreal climate zone that surrounds large parts of south-east Canada, Cleveland has a cold climate (effective climate classification Dfa). The seasons are typical of continental times with warm, damp summers and cold, snow-rich winters. During the first winter months, the Lake Effect Snow is a regional climate characterized by heavy snowfall, especially in the western wind direction. The average annual temperature is 10.5 degrees Celsius.
Cleveland has a reputation for being a very cold place. the average monthly temperatures during the winter months of December, January and February range from -0,5 to -3,5 °C; strict frosts below -15 °C are not rare in this season. Temperatures often feel colder due to the wind-chill effect. However, heat drops may temporarily cause temperatures to rise above 15 °C during the winter months. The lowest temperature recorded so far was -28.8 °C on 19 January 1994.
The summer months of June, July and August are the warmest with average maximum temperatures from 26.9 to 29.3 °C. During this time, the temperature may temporarily rise above 30 °C. The highest temperature was measured at 40 °C on 25 June 1988. Moreover, the water of the lake acts as a temperature reservoir, delaying the warming of the air in the spring, while it stays warm longer in autumn.
The rainfall is spread throughout the year, in summer as rain and in winter as snow. The lowest rainfall is recorded in October and in late winter when the ice is frozen and the Lake Effect Snow no longer occurs. The average annual rainfall is 932 mm.
Cleveland is located at the western end of the so-called Snow Belt and is therefore particularly affected by Lake Effect Snow. The reasons are the bend on the shore line towards the northeast, the location on the leeside of the lake and the steep rise of the site towards the southeast. Thus, the damp air masses in the northwest direction of the sea winds only hit the area east and northeast of the city center. As a result, these districts can sink below millimeter snow in a matter of hours in winter, while south and west of these districts have low rainfall. This distribution of rainfall can also be observed in the summer months in a weakened form.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Cleveland, Ohio
Source: National Weather Service, US Dept of Commerce, hours of sunshine The International Climate Index
The oldest traces of human settlement date back to the Paleindians from the period between 10500 and 7500 BC. 2500 years after the end of the last ice age. The groups, probably large families, first lived nomadic, from the middle archaic period after 4500 BC. c. They became increasingly settled. A larger settlement existed in the far west of Cleveland, where Hilliard Boulevard crosses the Rocky River. For the first time, it is possible to identify delimited areas within which seasonal migration has taken place in groups that have grown and become more socially differentiated. They were doing simple gardening, especially pumpkin, nuts also played an important role.
From the Woodland period (500 v. Chr.-1200 n. In 1861, the first part of the town was built in the 19th century, and the second part of the town was built in the 19th century. The first part of the town was built in the 19th century. Large villages dominated and from about 400 the cultivation of corn, the long-distance trade that existed very early on expanded.
In 1200, the Hopewell was followed by the so-called Whittlesey culture, characterized by advanced agriculture and settlement construction. It was part of the Mississippi culture, which is even more prevalent to the south. The population continued to grow until around 1500, and the level of vulnerability increased significantly from around 1350 and the area of certain families became tangible.
During the Little Ice Age (1500-1640), the population appears to have fallen sharply, possibly as a result of climatic changes or the Iroquois Biberwars. Between 1640 and 1740 there was no settlement activity at all. Even when Europeans arrive at the end of the 18th century. The area was still almost uninhabited.
Establishment and starting years
end of 18. In the 19th century, the state of Connecticut claimed a stretch of land in the northeast of today's Ohio, the Connecticut Western Reserve. This land was granted to settlers from 1796. In the course of the land surveying by General Moses Cleaveland, on 22 June 2006, he founded the company. At the mouth of the Cuyahoga River in the Ereiee on 17 July 1796, a port was first called the Cleaveland.
In 1818, the first two newspapers were founded; In the next few years, other newspapers in the English language were added to the pages in German, Hebrew, Italian and Hungarian. One of these newspapers, the Cleveland Advertiser, owes the city its renamed: Since the original spelling of the name was a letter too long for the title line, the newspaper removed the first "a" from "Cleaveland," claiming that it was official - and got through with it. On January 6, 1831, the city was officially renamed Cleveland.
Cleveland was the geographical, economic and cultural center of the Western Reserve from the very beginning. For example, when Cuyahoga County was founded in 1810, Cleveland was chosen as a district four years before its creation as a separate municipality. In 1836, Cleveland was the first town in the Western Reserve to become a town, and in 1847 the Catholic Bistum was founded. Other important institutions, such as doctors, schools, or banks, were in Cleveland, with a few exceptions from the start. Only economic rivalries with the city of Ohio City, on the other bank of the Cuyahoga, caused political conflicts, sometimes violent, in the first few decades. Cleveland ultimately decided for himself.
Civil war and industrialization
At first, Cleveland developed only slowly. However, with the opening of the Eriekanal in 1825 and the Ohio-Erie Canal in 1832, the city was connected to the Atlantic and the Mississippi and connected to international maritime routes. The construction and construction of the railway lines into the raw materials-rich Appalachchen from 1849 led to a rapid economic rise of the city. Cleveland became an important center of the raw material processing industry. In 1868 the first steel mill was inaugurated and in 1870 the Standard Oil Company was founded by John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) is the first oil refinery in the region. In the following decades, Cleveland became an important location for the steel and petrochemical industries.
In 1861-1865, the city became a major part of the city's industrialization. Resident companies produced uniforms, tobacco products, steel, steam ships, rafts and railway rails. In 1864, more than half of the total iron ore production was processed by the Upper Lake in Cleveland. Shipowners and a large number of commercial companies were also established, and eight railway companies had branches.
After the turn of the century, Cleveland became the second largest location in the US automobile industry after Detroit. The company focused mainly on the development and production of assemblies, car accessories and spare parts. Major factories included White Motor (steam cars and later heavy trucks), Eaton (gearbox), Willard/EnerSys (batteries), Fisher Body (body), Baker/Otis (electric vehicles), Ford (motors), General Motors (automatic gearbox, diesel engines) and Thompson/TRW. From 1910 onwards, the electrical engineering industry became the fourth major sector. During World War II, Boeing B-29 bombers and Fisher P-75 fighter aircraft were also assembled in Cleveland.
Great Depression and Economic Recovery
Cleveland was first hit during the Great Depression of the early 1930's. In 1933, almost a third of the population was unemployed. The city had to fight with increasing crime. During the prohibition period (1919-1933), Cleveland had become a center of organized crime and illegal gambling. This was supplemented by a corrupt and inefficient police force over decades.
In 1936/37 the Great Lakes Exposition took place on the shores of the lake in front of the city center. The event, similar to a world exhibition, was organized at the initiative of local politics and business and attracted a total of 7 million visitors over the last two years. At the same time, as a job-creation measure, the Roosevelt New Deal was built on the lakeshore in front of the inner city of Memorial Shoreway, Cleveland's first expressway. At times, 10,000 workers were employed on the construction site.
In the late 1930s, the city's economy recovered again. The population continued to grow, peaking in 1950 with around 915,000 people. Cleveland was the fifth largest city in the United States. The resident American football and baseball teams, Browns and the Indians, won the final rounds of their leagues several times in a row. In 1949, Cleveland was one of the first winners of the All-American City, and in the postwar decades, the city became the best location in the nation (German: "the best situation of the nation").
decline and structural change
However, following the end of the post-war boom, Cleveland's industry fell behind due to the increasing opening of world markets. Many of the resident companies were not competitive compared to international competitors. The steel industry faced high wage costs and increasing competition from cheap overseas imports as a result of the steel crisis in the early 1970s. Over time, car manufacturers had built up large excess capacity, suffered from mismanagement and were pressured by the oil crisis and new competitors from Europe and Japan. In addition, there were often outdated production facilities and increased environmental requirements. The Cuyahoga was now so polluted that its flammable surface caught fire in 1952 and 1969. The burning river caused a stir across the country, forcing policymakers to act. For decades, the industry had been heavily polluting the river with untreated waste water, and costly alterations were now on the way that the owners could not or would not afford. Many businesses had to close. Unemployment rose and a great many people emigrated. Cleveland impoverished. This period is also the source of a cynical expression, which is still often used as a synonym for the city: The mistake on the lake (German: "The error at the lake"). A few years later, the songwriter Randy Newman dedicated the city to the song Burn On, in which he sarcastically mocked the town in 1972 as "City of Light, City of Magic" and played on the fire of the Cuyahoga: ‘The Cuyahoga River runs smoking through my dreams’.
In addition to the poor economic situation, racial unrest began to unsettle citizens. A one-week uprising from July 18 to July 24, 1966 led to new elections for the mayor, which took place in 1967 with Carl B. Stokes produced the first black mayor of an American city. But he and his successors could not stop the city's economic decline either: 15. In December 1978, Cleveland was the first city to declare itself insolvent after the Great Depression of the 1930's. It was not until 1987 that this step could be withdrawn.
With the decline of heavy industry, the city's economic focus has increasingly shifted over the decades to the service industry. The largest employers in this sector are now found, mainly in the banking, insurance, public services and health sectors, mainly in university clinics and the renowned Cleveland Clinic.
Tourism has also become more important. An important step in this direction was the creation of the Museum Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995, which dedicated itself to important and influential figures around the Rock ’n’ Roll. Other tourist buildings and events are designed to help halt the decline of the city. But the city still faces major problems. several thousand people emigrate each year; the population that remains suffers from poverty, poor education and high unemployment, mainly structural. Thousands of residential buildings are empty.
The decline of Cleveland has been the subject of several research. The causes are seen not only in the increased competitive situation, but also in a weakening of the innovative power of established industries, a deteriorating social and business climate, and in the harsh local meteorological climate compared to the southern coastal regions, such as Silicon Valley. For example, after the automotive and electrical industries, no new industry grew. Cleveland was already unable to compete with the aerospace technology that was essential after World War II. Apart from that, the long-term negative effects of the Great Depression on the local economy seemed far greater than initially thought, and were only covered by the post-war boom.
According to critics, a possible reversal of the trend would involve reducing local bureaucracy and improving school education. In addition, the city should focus on attracting skilled immigrants and improving the investment climate. At any rate, Cleveland has enough potential. The quality of life has also improved considerably in recent years.
|Ethical composition of the population of Cleveland|
|Ethnia after Census 2000|
7,3 % Hispanics
and 92.7% non-Hispanics
In the last census in 2010, Cleveland had a population of 396,815. The city is the only big city in Ohio with a majority of black residents, with 51% African-Americans. This is much higher than, say, Ohio (11.5%) or the US average (12.3%), which is typical of large industrial cities in the north of the United States. Moreover, the 244,000 African-Americans constitute the largest black community in Ohio.
The second largest population is the white population, with a share of 41.5%. In addition, there are about 1,500 Indians and 6,500 Asians, as well as 17,200 members of other ethnic groups and 10,700 mixed individuals. Hispanics is 7.3% of the total population; Nearly three quarters of them are from Puerto Rico.
Among the white population, families with German ancestors have the largest share (22.25%), followed by Ireland (19.65%), Poland (11.58%) and Italy (11.1%). However, only 6,63 % of English roots were reported. The high proportion of the German population is typical of Ohio (21.42%) and the relatively low proportion of English is characteristic of the north-east of the state.
The city area is highly segregated between the various ethnic groups. While the white population live in the western and southern parts of the West Side, on the South Side and on the banks of the Ereiee, the black live almost exclusively on the East Side, mainly east of East 55th Street. The Hispanics live on the inner West Side, and the ethnic Asian groups are concentrated on the inner East Side, just behind the city center.
Situation of Indians
Since Cleveland was born in an area that was still relatively young for its inhabitants, the number of Indians in the city remained low for a long time. The 1900 census only shows two Indians for Cleveland, 48 in 1910, and 34 in 1920. It was only after World War II that the number grew to 109 in 1950, with 57 Indians in Cuyahoga County. By the 1970's, the number of Indians rose, reflecting labor needs. In 1960, there were already 391 residents in the city, in County 464. During this period, assimilation attempts were intensified, initiated by the dissolution of the reserves in the Urban Indian Relocation Program. In 1952, Cleveland was one of the first eight cities in the United States to participate in the program. Many Indians then settled in and around Cleveland, soon reaching more than 5,000, most of whom came from the West. In 1980, however, many Indians, whose cultural roots became more aware, moved back to their families in the reserves.
Russell Means, a Dakota Sioux, became the most important Indian leader in Cleveland as part of the civil rights movement. He founded the Cleveland American Indian Center Cultural and Social Center in 1969, which included 1,200 Indians. Initially, social tasks were the main focus of attention for the most poor members, but in the course of the 1970s cultural tasks were added. In 1990, the Lake Erie Native American Council (LENAC) was established, and in 1992, Christopher Columbus joined the 500-year Committee to celebrate the 500-year anniversary of the discovery of America.
The Greater Cleveland counted exactly 1,603 Indians in 1980, compared to 2,706 in 1990. In 2000, 2,529 Indians lived in the county, including 1,458 in Cleveland itself.
In the first decades after its foundation, Cleveland was an economically insignificant and unattractive place for immigrants. In 1800, four years after its foundation, seven inhabitants (and a snack distillery) were recorded, and in 1830 there were more than 1000 inhabitants. Only after the opening of canals and the construction of railways did the population increase rapidly. In 1850, Cleveland was one of the 50 largest cities in the United States. By 1900, Cleveland was already the seventh largest city in the country, with more than 380,000 inhabitants. The year 1950 marked the peak of the population with 914,808 inhabitants - as in many other industrial cities in the north-east of the United States. Since that peak, the population has fallen by more than half.
¹ 1980-2010: census results; 2016: US Census Bureau estimate
Migration and social problems
The first decades of immigrants came mainly from the British Isles and Central Europe. From 1870 onwards, East Europeans and Germans increased their migration. In 1900, the Germans made up the largest population in the city, with 40,000 people. By 1930, Cleveland was the largest Hungarian settlement outside Europe with 43,000 people. With World War I, however, immigration from most European countries came to an abrupt end because of the change in the law.
However, as industrial workers continued to be needed, black people from the poor southeast of the United States were recruited and moved to the industrial cities of the North as part of the Great Migration. These migrated until around 1970 and in large numbers, but, unlike Europeans, they remained mostly socially poorly integrated, poor, and poorly educated. As the industrial base gradually collapsed, tens of thousands of blacks remained unemployed without training.
At the same time, social and ethnic tensions have led to a massive white flight into the suburbs. As the majority of black people remained in Cleveland, their share rose from 28.5% in 1960 to 51% in 2000, as the total population declined rapidly. In recent years, however, the growing black middle class has migrated to the eastern suburbs, impoverishing and depopulating the city as a whole. Some parts of the East Side have lost more than three quarters of their inhabitants since 1950.
The decline of industry and the segregation and exodus that have lasted for decades have caused considerable problems. Cleveland has underqualified immigrants and underskilled for continued structural change. Instead, social marginalized groups dominate large areas. Around one third of the population does not have a school diploma, many residents are single parents or come from problematic family relationships, making it very difficult to communicate in the labor market.
At the same time, there is a lack of cheap housing, which is evident in a large number of people without housing. In 2007, there were an estimated 20,000 people without secure residence in the county, or about 1.5% of the total population. About a fifth of them, 4,300 people, were completely homeless, so they lived permanently on the street. Around 40% of the male homeless have a job but cannot afford a rental apartment.
Crime in Cleveland has almost steadily declined over the last few years. In 2009, some 20% fewer offenses were recorded than a decade ago. Yet Cleveland remains a comparatively dangerous city in the US. In 2008, statistically, there were 23.5 murders per 100,000 inhabitants, more than Chicago (18.0), but still much less than, say, in the troubled cities of St. Louis (46.9) and Detroit (33.8), or Washington, DC (31.4). However, with 98 and 878 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants, Cleveland has the highest value in rape and robbery. In the area of property offenses, the city belongs to the upper middle of the area with 5,784 cases per 100,000 inhabitants.
Priorities and prevailing offenses have changed significantly over time, together with the city. Before Cleveland became a center of organized crime and illegal gambling in the time of prohibition, drunkenness, beatings, and illegal prostitution were the main problems in the late nineteenth century. After World War II, the Mafia remained active, but the lack of trust between the black immigrants and the white police in the suburbs proved to be a major problem. To this end, broken family relations increased juvenile delinquency. The police have been dealing with these problems with more black personnel and using violence and drug prevention.
There is no precise indication of the religious affiliation of the inhabitants of Cleveland himself. In the county as a whole, the Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious group with 35% of the population. This represents a significantly higher proportion of the total population compared to Ohio (19.7%). A further 14.4% consider themselves Protestant, with the high proportion of Baptists among African-American populations likely to significantly increase the protestors in Cleveland itself. More than 1% of the population is committed to orthodoxy. There are also around 79,000 Jews and some 20,000 Muslims in the county, including 35% converts. Far Eastern religions like Buddhists form small marginal groups with a few hundred members.
In his early years, however, Cleveland was almost exclusively Protestant. The population was almost united in the Congregationalist and Presbyterian churches. In the second half of the nineteenth century, Catholics in particular from Germany and Ireland increased and replaced the New England churches as the dominant religious community in 1900. As a result of the White Flight, however, the Catholic Church again lost weight, mainly in favor of the Protestant black churches. At the same time, the religious spectrum has spread considerably among immigrants from countries outside Europe. The Islamic faith community grew to its present size, especially between 1960 and 1990.
Christian groups in particular are characterized by their fragmentation; belonging is not only based on religion, but also on origin, ethnicity, social status and the degree of assimilation. For example, there are similar numbers of orthodox parishes next to each other as immigrant nations with a religious background. The reason is the autocephaly of Orthodox churches, according to which most parishes still see themselves not as a member of the Orthodox Church in America (OCA), but as a member of their respective home churches. The black also relied on their own parishes because of the racial segregation that they were initially practicing, with the middle class visiting churches other than the lower class. And, among Europeans, the different generations of immigrants were distributed to different churches of the same denomination, depending on their home consciousness. Only the Puerto Ricans integrated themselves mostly into established parishes.
The spatial distribution of followers of religious communities is based on the population structure. White Protestants and Catholics live side by side on the West Side, while Catholics dominate the South Side, and Protestants form the strongest group in black neighborhoods on the East Side. The once significant Jewish community has migrated to the eastern suburbs, with a small rest.
While much of Ohio's support is largely for the Republicans, the Cleveland area has been a Democratic stronghold since the New Deal. The Democrats have almost all seats on the city council - a councilor passed to the Greens in 2010 - and since the 1930's, almost all mayors have been appointed. Likewise, all relevant members of the Senate and the House of Representatives of Ohio, as well as both members of Congress, are Democrats. In the 2008 presidential election, Barack Obama won 68.69% of the vote in Cuyahoga County, compared to 51.5% across Ohio.
During industrialization, trade unions also became an important social force. Initially, they were organized only in small groups, helping factory workers to improve their living conditions on a steady basis from the end of the nineteenth century. In the 1930's, the two most important unions emerged with the United Auto Workers (UAW) and the United Steelworkers (USW). After 1980, however, their influence diminished with the decline of industry. Radical, socialist movements like those in Europe could not win in Cleveland because of visible material gains in workers.
In the late phase of industrialization, Cleveland was also strongly influenced by left-liberal, so-called progressive currents. Leading local politicians from this period were particularly committed to social issues, benefiting mainly the judiciary and health care. Likewise, they fought a long battle for expanded city rights in terms of local self-government. In 1912, the Home Rule Amendment changed the constitution of the state of Ohio, which Cleveland was the first to implement in 1914.
Since the 1920's, the political influence of the immigrant African-American populations has grown. In 1927, there were three black people in the city council, and since the mid-1960s they have held about half the seats. In 1967 they first appointed the mayor with Carl Stokes. But growing political influence has long been confronted with poverty, discrimination, and poor housing. This led to racial riots in the 1960's, which eventually led to the uprising in 1966.
Clevelands Town Council is organized according to the Mayor Council system and governs according to the Strong Mayor principle. In addition to the City Council, the Mayor is directly elected. The city council is only the legislature, while the mayor, as the sole head of the executive, has extensive powers (Strong Mayor). The term of office is four years. This form of city government is typical of American cities.
The city council is made up of 19 members and is therefore very large for US conditions. Each member is elected by majority vote in one of the 19 constituencies of Clevelands (Wards). The number of constituencies and the voting mode of the Council members has been changed several times and in some cases profoundly over the last 200 years. The background was the fight against initial corruption, population development and political disputes over the whole system issue. Today's division into 19 constituencies was introduced in the 2010-2013 parliamentary term. Before that, there were 21 awards.
Since 2006, Mayor has been the Democrat Frank G. Jackson (* 1946). As a long-time member and last chairman of the city council, he defeated the then incumbent Jane L with approximately 55 %. Campbell. Many of his predecessors later completed career as senators, governors, or federal judges.
Since 1977, the mayor has been elected by an absolute majority and non-partisan (non-partisan) political. The primaries will involve a wide range of candidates who belong to the same or none of the parties. As in the last run-off, two members of the same party can face each other.
A contiguous and orderly city administration has existed in Cleveland only since 1914. This is based on the 1912 constitutional amendment, which created the current legal basis for local self-government. Prior to that, the city had a City Commission Government, according to which the individual heads of department and government were directly elected. This process had repeatedly proved chaotic, inefficient, corrupt, and inadequate to the complex tasks of a large city.
The administration is divided into a total of eight departments and around two dozen subdivisions. In addition to the legal, financial, public security, construction, utilities and social services departments required by the Ohio Constitution, the area of economic and urban planning is particularly important. For some responsibilities, special-purpose associations have been set up in cooperation with local communities. These include urban transport in the form of the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (RTA), sanitation, social housing and regional planning.
The 2009 Urban Budget foresaw revenue of $512.1 million and expenditure of $541.5 million. By far the main source of income tax was 290 million; The biggest expenditure was public safety, consisting of police, fire brigade and emergency services, with 317 million. The municipal utilities estimated that their turnover was $641.1 million. At the end of 2007, debt amounted to $3.32 billion, with $2.36 billion in equity.
Town twinning schemes have 20 cities:
- Achill Island, Ireland
- Alexandria, Egypt
- Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
- Bangalore, India
- Brașov, Romania
- Bratislava, Slovakia
- Cleveland, United Kingdom
- Conakry, Guinea
- Gdansk, Poland
- Fier, Albania
- Cholon, Israel
- Ibadan, Nigeria
- Klaipėda, Lithuania
- Lima, Peru
- Ljubljana, Slovenia
- Miskolc, Hungary
- Rouen, France
- Segundo Montes, El Salvador
- Taipei, Republic of China (Taiwan)
- Volgograd, Russia
Culture and sights
Art and museums
Cleveland houses numerous cultural institutions. Many of them date back to the period 1910-1925, when Cleveland was at its first peak. In the ensuing periods of decline, however, classical culture did not stand easily. It was only when the city's economy had to be restructured and tourism activities became a public sight that new start-ups such as the opera (1976), the ballet (1976), the chamber orchestra (1980) and the singer choir (1982) were again set up. In the 1990s, new museums were added to the Lakefront, the lake bank in front of the city center, including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, which opened in 1995.
The resident Symphony Orchestra Cleveland Orchestra, led by Chief Conductor Franz Welser-Möst, is one of the Great Five Classic Symphony Orchestras of the United States. Founded in 1918, it has been based in Severance Hall since 1931 and is one of the world’s most respected ensembles.
The Playhouse Square building complex, with its theaters, gastronomy and cultural facilities, is home to numerous ensembles such as the Cleveland Opera and, taken together, is one of the largest cultural centers in the United States. Karamu House is also an important African-American cultural center. There are also a few cabaret and art stages; the multicultural Cleveland Play House and the experimentally oriented Cleveland Public Theater. The Great Lakes Science Center on the Lakefront offers more than 350 interactive scientific exhibits and an IMAX cinema showing scientific films. Next to it is the museum steam ship William G. Mather at anchor.
Major local traditional museums are the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and the Western Reserve Historical Society, the oldest cultural organization in the northeast of Ohio with its regional museum and important documentary archives. The Cleveland Botanical Garden dates back to 1930 and is the oldest botanical garden in the USA. The Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland (MOCA) presents around ten traveling exhibitions of various international representatives of contemporary art every year.
The Cleveland Public Library has been operating since 1869 and has 29 offices and some 4 million media outlets.
Buildings in the city center
The city center has several architectural buildings. Many of them were developed in the context of large-scale urban development projects. For example, many public institutions, such as the City Hall, the City Library and the Court, are housed in neo-classical monumental buildings grouped around the Cleveland Mall park north of Public Square. The ensemble, dating from 1910-1931, is one of the most important and comprehensive examples of neoclassical architecture of the City Beautiful Movement, dating from the very beginning of the century.
The city's landmark is the Terminal Tower, built in 1930, on the southern floor of Public Square. Built in 1922-1930, the Beaux Arts/Art Deco tower, together with adjoining office buildings, forms a complex similar to the Rockefeller Center in New York City - but it was built ten years earlier. The tower, with its 708 feet (216 meters) height, was the second highest building in the United States until 1967 and the tallest building in Cleveland until 1991. Since then, it has been towered by the 289-meter-high Key Tower. The third big skyscraper in the city center is 200 Public Square (also: BP Building) at 200.6 meters from 1985. There are also two dozen other buildings in the city center with an altitude of over 80 meters.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the city center was expanded eastwards as part of urban regeneration between East 6th and East 17th Street. The contemporary international style prevails in the residential and office buildings in this area.
In addition, there are a few distinctive Victorian-style buildings dating back to the turn of the century. The most important building from this period is "The Arcade", built in 1890, a five-story covered shopping center with a 300-foot (91.4 m) glass roof. From the same period, a number of former warehouses on the heights of the Cuyahoga River west of Public Square, forming the Historic Warehouse District, now house luxurious apartments and shops. The Historic Warehouse District has played an important role in the city’s vibrancy in recent years, together with Playhouse Square, the renovated Terminal Tower and the facilities on the Lakefront.
The University Circle is located about seven kilometers east of the city center, surrounded by poor districts. The 197.5 hectare area, similar to a park, houses many of the city's cultural, social and educational institutions. The University Circle is home to the Case Western Reserve University campus with its affiliated university clinics and research facilities, the Western Reserve Historical Society, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Botanical Gardens and the Severance Hall. The Cleveland Clinic's buildings are also nearby.
parks and green areas
Cleveland has over 160 public parks with a total surface area of almost 700 hm2, mainly along smaller rivers and along the lakeshore. Noteworthy are the Rockefeller Park on Doan Brook, which joins the University Circle on the East Side, the Big Creek nature reserve on the West Side, and the Cleveland Lakefront State Park on the lakeside, which includes Edgewater Park and some marinas and beach baths. The lake is also open to the public in many other places, but it is cut off almost the entire length by highways from the city and is partially blocked by industrial installations in the area of the city center. Outside the city, the Cleveland Metroparks form a green belt of nature reserves, which runs within a radius of about 15 kilometers around the city.
In the residential areas there are only small green areas. In the last few decades, however, east of East 55th Street, an unintended green district has emerged, characterized by open meadows and growing hedges. As a result of the continuing migration, a large number of land is no longer being built there. There are no houses left in some roads. The city is trying to contain the land by means of a large-scale deportation of land, but in the absence of investors, the agricultural or gardening use of these areas is also being discussed.
A stretch east of the University Circle, right on the city's border, lies Lake View Cemetery, which is home to many celebrities from Cleveland and the surrounding area. Among other things, there is the Rockefeller family tomb and the Mausoleum of James A. Garfield, President of the United States.
The city has the nickname "Forest City". The origin of this name is not fully understood. It is probably due to the long-time managing director of the local horticultural association and later Clevelander mayor William Case (1818-1862), who in 1852 had numerous trees planted in the city. The name 1850 was used for the first time for a race track; Several other local companies and institutions followed. Forest City Enterprises is the most well-known listed real estate company.
Cleveland has a total of three sports teams from the highest North American professional leagues. After Cleveland Browns last won the NFL in 1964, a 52-year-old thirst track was launched, while the city of Cleveland could not win a title in a major sport. Only on June 20, 2016, this negative series was ended by the Basketball players of the Cleveland Cavaliers who were able to turn the Best-of-seven series against the Golden State Warriors into a 4:3 victory despite the mid-term 1:3 delay.
The Cleveland Cavaliers are playing at the Eastern Conference of the National Basketball Association (NBA). The Cleveland Monsters are an ice hockey team from the American Hockey League (AHL). The Cleveland Gladiators are playing in the Arena Football League, whose operations have been resumed after the 2009 League's bankruptcy in autumn 2010. The Cavaliers, Monsters and Gladiators play their home games in the Quicken Loans Arena.
The Cleveland Indians from the Major League Baseball American League are based in Progressive Field and are nicknamed "the Tribe" (German: the (Indian)strain. After a very successful 2016 season, the Indians narrowly missed the victory in the World Series. They lost in the final against the Chicago Cubs in their own stadium.
The Football Team Cleveland Browns from the National Football League has existed since 1946. Browns are home at the FirstEnergy stage.
Especially in ice hockey, Cleveland has a long tradition. The Cleveland Barons won the Calder Cup nine times between 1937 and 1973, making them one of the most successful AHL teams ever. Until their dissolution in 2003, Cleveland Rockers was also one of the eight founding members of the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA) in Cleveland. In 2009, the Cleveland City Stars soccer team from the US First Division, the second-highest US soccer league, was also dissolved.
From 1982 to 2007, Cleveland was the venue for the Grand Prix of Cleveland (German: Grand Prize of Cleveland, originally: Cleveland 500), a Formula Automobile race for the US CART/Champcar racing series. The Grand Prix was held 26 times on the Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport racing course until the Champcar's merger with the IndyCar Series.
Since 2012 the Cleveland Velodrome cycling track, belonging to a non-profit organization, has been located in Slavic Village. In addition to sports activities, the organization aims to help improve the infrastructure in the surrounding neighborhood.
A number of nationwide renowned events in the fields of film, music and technology are taking place in Cleveland. Most of them have only established themselves in recent decades.
The largest event in terms of number of visitors is the Cleveland National Air Show with 120,000 spectators (1994). Since 1964, the Flight Show has been held every year at the Labor Day weekend in early September at Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport on the shores of the lake. The exhibition will show various hourly flights as well as modern and historic aircraft. The Thunderbirds and Blue Angels are the two US aerobics teams that change every year.
Since 1977, the Cleveland International Film Festival has been held every year in March. The film will feature premiere films from over 50 countries. The festival is the most important such event in Ohio and has become increasingly important in recent years. And since 1980, the Tri-C Jazz Festival has seen a number of well-known American jazz musicians perform in various places in the city, such as Charlie Haden and George Benson.
The most recent major event is the IngenityFest. Since 2004 it has been offering artistic and musical performances on various stages, as well as scientific demonstrations and interactive technical installations.
Economy and infrastructure
Cleveland's metropolitan region delivered $129.4 billion in GDP in 2016, ranking 30 among the US's large areas.
The most important economic activity in the city is the medical facilities. The prestigious Cleveland Clinic, with 10,000 employees, is the largest employer in the region; together with the other institutions, more than 30,000 people are employed in the sector. This will be followed by banks, insurance companies and the public service, each employing more than 10,000 people.
As a result of the decline of heavy industry, Cleveland has lost much of its importance as a production site. In 2000, 18% of workers in the sector were employed. The largest remaining industrial plants are Ford's foundry and engine plant with around 1,900 employees and the steel group Mittal Steel with a rolling mill employing 1,460 people. General Motors and Lincoln Electric (welding equipment) also have larger factories.
Tourism, however, has become a major tourist activity in recent years. The region’s tourist accommodation facilities have some 21,300 beds and 4.5 million beds. overnight stays per year. Hotels, restaurants and tourist attractions are issued by the Positively Cleveland Agency (originally: Convention and Visitors Bureau of Greater Cleveland) under the brand Cleveland Plus (CLE+). The main tourist destinations are the sports facilities and the museums in the city center and the University Circle.
In addition, many large companies are based in Cleveland, including Parker-Hannifin and Eaton Corporation (mechanical engineering), Forest City Enterprises (real estate), Sherwin-Williams (paints, varnishes and building materials), KeyBank, American Greetings (greeting cards) and MTD (garden equipment). Until a few years ago TRW Automotive (space, automotive), OfficeMax (office supplies), Standard Oil of Ohio (petrochemistry) and the US Bank National City were also represented. In 1995, Cleveland was statistically the third largest collection of large companies in the US.
The city also has a long tradition as a location for industrial research. The National Carbon and General Electric (Nela Park) research centers date back to the 1910s and were one of the oldest such facilities in the US. NASA's Glenn Research Center has been developing aeronautics techniques since 1941. In the mid-1980s, more than 200 industrial research facilities were operating in the city.
With a poverty rate of around 30%, Cleveland was one of the poorest cities in the US in the last decade. In 2007, average household income was $27,007, just 54% of the US average. Moreover, the city was hit above average by unemployment for many years as a result of structural change in the 1980's and 1990's. In 2000, the rate was always between 7.5 and 10%, roughly twice the average of Ohio. In June 2009, although it rose to 12.2%, it was only slightly above the average of 11.2%. Unemployment is mainly structural and mainly affects low-skilled workers. The unemployment rate in the metropolitan area of Cleveland fell to 4.9% by March 2018, above the national average of 3.8%.
The sub-prime crisis also left a strong mark in Cleveland. At low interest rates, members of the poorer communities bought old, already-declining local housing on credit and at inflated prices. When they could no longer service credit rates with rising interest rates, the banks seized the houses, evacuated them, and auctioned them at knockdown prices. Because these houses are virtually unsaleable, given the already high number of vacancies, they are being abandoned to speculation and decay. At the end of 2007, more than 15,000 units were affected, of which almost 5,000 were from Deutsche Bank, which, at least for a short time, has thus become the largest property owner in the city.
In Cleveland alone, the total loss from tax losses, the cost of keeping or demolition homes, and the depreciation of property is estimated at several hundred million dollars. In early 2008, the city brought an action seeking to have some of the underlying commercial practices declared illegal in general, thereby setting a precedent for the courts.
Cleveland is connected to the network of Interstate Highways via several motorways. The I-90 Seattle-Boston runs along the Ereiee, the I-80 San Francisco-New York City runs about 22 kilometers south of the city. From the south, the I-71 from Columbus and Cincinnati and the I-77 lead to the city. The I-480 in the south and the I-271 in the east serve as bypass routes. Cleveland also has a number of trunk roads in a radical direction. These are the U.S. Highways 6, 20, 42, 422 and 322, and about a dozen Ohio State Routes. Some of these roads are complemented by highways and have been upgraded to express roads.
Greyhound Lines operates a number of long-distance bus lines to neighboring major cities and operates a bus terminal in the city center. From the southwestern suburb of Brook Park, buses run by the Lakefront Trailways to Columbus, Athens and Charleston in West Virginia.
Opened in 1925, Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is located on the south-west edge of the city, approximately 16.7 km away by air from the city center. It is the hub for United Airlines and the most important airport in Ohio, with around 11 million passengers. In 1968, he was the first airport in the countries with direct high-speed rail connections. The Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport in the city center is significantly smaller and serves only general aviation.
Port of Cleveland is located on both sides of the mouth of the Cuyahoga in the Ereiee and extends some river kilometers inland. It is the fourth largest port in the Great Lakes region, measured at an average annual turnover of 12.5 million tons. Over 95% of the cargo is bulk material such as limestone, iron ore and cereals; in the case of general cargo, steel and machinery are of particular importance.
The Cuyahoga is widened and excavated from its mouth to the steel mill and is served by cargo ships. Therefore, the railway and road bridges in this area either have a very high level of passage or are designed as lift and folding bridges.
As an old industrial city within the Rust Belt, Cleveland is also an important railway hub for freight transport. The entire urban area, in particular the area around the lower Cuyahoga and the old industrial sites in the south and south-east, is covered by a variety of railway lines, industrial connections, freight stations and related fields. Once operated by New York Central Railroad, New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Pennsylvania Railroad, and Erie Railroad, today most of the routes are part of Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX Transportation, and a dozen small local companies.
Since the 1960's, the once-important local and long-distance passenger transport has no role. Amtrak uses one pair of trains a day for the Washington-Chicago and New York City-Chicago relations, using a small, inconspicuous stop on the shore of the lake. The original central station under the Tower terminal in the city center is now only used in urban traffic.
Since 1955, the Red Line has operated a fast railway line between the airport, the city center and the north-eastern outskirts of the city. Two light rail lines also lead to the eastern suburb of Shaker Heights. Unlike most such systems in the US, they have been operating continuously since the 1910's.
The railways are operated by the local transport authority, the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (RTA), along with a relatively well developed bus network. It receives about two thirds of the urban transport budget from taxes. The amount corresponds to the tax revenue from 1 percentage point of the sales tax of Cuyahoga County.
Gas, water and electricity
The municipal water plants supply drinking water to Cleveland and 68 of its surrounding communities. The catchment area covers 640 square miles (1,658 km²) and covers more than 8,000 kilometers of lines with 414,000 connections and 1.5 million inhabitants. The drinking water is extracted from the bottom of the lake over kilometers of suction pipes and then processed. The very good quality of drinking water has long been questioned by the public, because all waste water - even if cleaned by sewage plants - has always been discharged into the lake. The supply of the comparatively prosperous suburbs was and is an important source of revenue in view of the city's difficult financial situation.
On the local electricity market there are two competing suppliers, on the one hand Illumniating Company, a private company, a subsidiary of FirstEnergy, and on the other hand Cleveland Public Power (CPP). CPP is the largest municipal electricity supplier in Ohios. Dominion East Ohio, a subsidiary of Dominion power, is the only local gas supplier.
The local school district of Cleveland Metropolitan School District has 114 public schools with around 50,000 students and almost 3,800 teachers. He is the largest school district in Ohio, along with Columbus. There are also a number of schools with private or church sponsorship.
Since 1998, the administration of public schools has been under the authority of the mayor. Cleveland also has a school board that deals with school policy, finance, quality assurance and public relations. But the members of this school board are not elected by the population as usual in Ohio, but appointed by the mayor. This is a unique form of school administration for Ohio.
Previously, the schools were organized in direct public self-government, thus depriving them of political control. The population elected a five-member School Board, which in turn appointed a School Superintendent as Chief Executive. Similar to the initial organization of the city administration, this construction proved to be inefficient and increasingly divided.
Moreover, for decades, the administration has not been able to cope with the problems posed by black immigration. Between 1950 and 1963, the number of pupils grew from 100,000 to more than 150,000, with an increasing number of children coming from socially disadvantaged families. The resulting shortage of teachers, learning materials, and school buildings has been slow to address, because the ongoing White Flight has eroded the schools' financial base. However, tax increases to offset the growing deficit were rejected by the population.
In addition, US federal judges considered the uneven distribution of the black students that resulted from the population structure in the city to be discriminatory. In a 1978 ruling, they ruled that pupils of all races should be distributed evenly across all urban schools. As a result, 30,000 pupils had to be driven between the rules of the school every day for 22 years at a high cost. According to critics, this so-called "desegregation busing" or "busing" has exacerbated the brain drain to the suburbs and has exacerbated the financial problems by its high costs.
The persistently poor learning conditions increased the number of early school leavers. In 1998, with a 28% high-school graduate rate, Cleveland reached just under half of the US average, last in the country. Since the 1998 administrative reform, the rate has risen to over 60%, but it is still well below the other major cities of Ohio.
Cleveland is located in several universities, including three universities. The private research university Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) was founded in 1967 as a result of the merger of the Case Institute of Technology, founded in 1880, with the Western Reserve University, founded in 1826. The teaching and research facilities are located in the University Circle and cover a total of eight disciplines; some courses are conducted in collaboration with the surrounding cultural centers and the Cleveland Clinic. The Case Western has around 4900 employees (in 2000) and almost 9500 students (in 2001), as well as a foundation fund of over USD 1 billion.
The Catholic John Carroll University (JCU) is one of the 28 Jesuit colleges in the USA. It was founded in 1886 by German Jesuits emigrated under the name of St. Ignatius College. The JCU has 3100 Bachelor and Master students enrolled and 385 scientific staff. According to the U.S. News & World Report, the affiliated Boler School of Business is one of the best management schools in the USA. Since 1935, the campus has been located in the suburb of University Heights about 13.5 km east of the city center.
The state-owned Cleveland State University (CSU) has been in existence since 1964. It is the result of an initiative by the state of Ohio to provide higher education to the general population by creating new universities. The CSU quickly grew to over 15,000 students and 450 scientific staff through numerous new institutions until about 1980. Although it is actually a rather average American university, the law school has a special significance. This is due to the incorporation of the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law in 1969, which dates back to 1897. The CSU is located on East 17th Street east of the city center.
There are also three smaller universities, the private management school Chancellor University with 1400 students (1995), the Cleveland Institute of Art, an art and design college with around 500 Bachelor students, and the Cleveland Institute of Music, which has 1700 laymen and 400 regular music students.
The local community college Cuyahoga Community College (CCC) teaches 25,000 people in three locations. It is based on the same federal initiative as Cleveland State University and has been a major contributor to the retraining of industrial workers in the course of structural change.
The only daily newspaper left in Cleveland is the Plain Dealer. It is published by Advance Publications Media Group and is the most widely published daily newspaper in Ohio with 300,000 copies sold on weekdays and 400,000 on Sundays. The Sun Newspapers, a chain of weekly newspapers, are published in the same publishing house and are only available in the suburbs and on the West Side. The two editors also provide the news for the regional news website cleveland.com.
Every week, Crain’s Cleveland Business, a regional business newspaper of Crain Communications, and the scenes of Times-Shamrock Communications, a free and advertising-funded alternative weekly newspaper with a circulation of 60,000 copies, also appear. The largest regional monthly magazine is the Cleveland Magazine of Great Lakes Publishing, with a circulation of around 45,000 copies. The Alternative Press, published since 1985, is dedicated to modern music and is distributed throughout North America and many other countries, including Germany.
The TV market offers a number of regional TV channels. They are part of the country's major media companies (Networks) such as NBC, ABC, FOX or the Spanish-speaking Univision and broadcast their sheathing programs. In addition, the non-commercial Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is represented by the US-wide channel PBS World, the regional Ohio channel and the division channel Create.
In addition, more than two dozen mostly regional radio stations of different genres are available, most of them on VHF. Below it is also a branch of National Public Radio (NPR). The three major universities also have their own radio station.
Cleveland has been and continues to be the work of many personalities from different social spheres. Many of them were buried on Lake View Cemetery after their death.
John D is by far the most famous industrialist. Rockefeller (1839-1937). He managed all his economic activities from Cleveland for more than a decade and a half until he moved to New York City with his firm Standard Oil in 1885. In later years, he donated parks and charities. The city's natural gas supply is also due to its company.
The Van Sweringen brothers (Oris Paxton 1879-1936 and Mantis James 1881-1935) controlled a railway network of almost 50,000 km until their empire collapsed during the Great Depression. In 1909 and 1930, they also developed Shaker Heights, a suburb of a modern garden town, and built the Tower City Center.
In addition to the black mayor Carl Stokes (1927-1996), well-known political figures are mainly the left-liberal congressman and two-time candidate for the presidential nomination Dennis Kucinich (1946). The post of Clevelander Mayor was also held by the later US Secretary of War, Newton Baker (1871-1937), Governor Frank J. Lausche (1895-1990), native Italian and later US Secretary of Health, Anthony J. Celebrezze (1910-1998) and former governor and US Senator George Voinovich (1936-2016).
Cleveland-based businessman Mark Hanna (1837-1904) introduced modern campaign methods in 1896 as the manager of Republican presidential candidate William McKinley. John Hay (1838-1905), later US Secretary of State, lived in Cleveland from 1875 to 1886, and wrote his impressions of local society in his book The Bread Winners.
The founder of Cleveland Clinic, George Washington Crile (1864-1943), was one of the leading surgeons in the United States at the time. After his death, many internationally renowned doctors worked at his institution, including René Favaloro, Maria Siemionov, and the physiologist Irvine Page. The physicist and Nobel laureate Donald A is also from here. Glaser (1926-2013) from Cleveland.
In addition to classical music, several representatives of modern music are based in Cleveland. These include the experimental industrial rock music project Nine Inch Nails, the crossover metal band Mushroomhead, the art punk group Rocket from the Tombs, the rock, soul and bluesband Welshly Arms and the much-respected but commercially unsuccessful rock band Pere Ubu. Chimaira, also based in Cleveland, is considered the founder of the Metalcore genre.
Representatives of African-American music include the Grammy award-winning Dazz Band, the hip-hop group Bone Thugs-N-Harmony, which was particularly successful in the 1990s, and the multi-platinum award-winning R&B singer Avant. The rapper Kid Cudi (* 1984), who named one of his songs after the city, was also from Cleveland Is the Reason.
- ↑ The name "Statistical Planning Area" for a neighborhood seems to be common only in Cleveland.
- ↑ The order of precedence shall be derived from the overview map of the specified source, with appropriate verification; The population figures mentioned above have been brought to 2000 levels.
- ↑ Hispanics are not an ethnicity in the sense of the US census, and are therefore recorded separately.
- ↑ The U.S. Census Bureau is not permitted by law to collect religious data. Instead, many other statistics (surveys or the number of prayer houses in the telephone book) are used. These figures are by nature inaccurate and relate only to the county. In particular, since Cleveland's population structure differs significantly from that of the County or Ohios, the statistics cited are even more to be taken with caution.
- ↑ The most famous representative of this urban design is the National Mall in Washington, D.C., between Capitol and the Lincoln Memorial.
- ↑ according to its own data, clevelandclinic.org employs 39,000 people; This number is mentioned more frequently but does not refer to Cleveland.
- ↑ The lack of political control should be interpreted as meaning that the school administration was not subject to effective supervision. The school board was directly, i.e. democratically legitimized and thus does not imply any authority, and thus had a "free hand" in every respect. - "Cleveland’s public schools freed themselves of political control ... before the Civil War but were, by the 1980s, reverting to these conditions."